Key Sunsets Under the JCPOA and UNSC Resolution 2231

BY Behnam Ben Taleblu and Andrea Stricker - FOUNDATION FOR THE DEFENSE OF DEMOCRACIES



A re-entry into the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) by the United States would be a disservice to America’s nonproliferation objectives, as well as to President Joe Biden’s nascent Iran policy. Many of the major limitations included in the JCPOA and its accompanying United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolution (2231) on the Islamic Republic’s nuclear and missile programs are set to expire or “sunset,” meaning Washington would be re-joining an accord that doesn’t block Iran’s pathways to nuclear weapons. After 2031, there are no provisions that stop Iran from producing and amassing weapon-grade uranium.




Sources All JCPOA prohibitions are tied to Implementation Day (January 16, 2016) : Annex I, paragraph 1 All UNSCR prohibitions are tied to Adoption Day (October 18, 2015): Annex V (various) ARMS EMBARGO

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 5

VISA BANS

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 6 (e)

SANCTIONS

  • JCPOA: Annex V, paragraphs 19, 20 – 20.4, and 21 – 21.3

IMPORT/EXPORT OF MISSILE-RELATED EQUIPMENT

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 4

BALLISTIC MISSILES

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 3

UN-SPONSORED ASSET FREEZE

UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 6 (c)

ADVANCED CENTRIFUGES

  • JCPOA: Annex I, paragraphs 37 and 38

  • Iran’s long-term enrichment plan, a side agreement to JCPOA/UNSCR 2231, sections 2-3

PAST UNSC RESOLUTIONS RELATED TO IRAN’S NUCLEAR PROGRAM

  • JCPOA: Annex V, paragraphs 23-24

UN PROCUREMENT CHANNEL

  • JCPOA: Annex V, paragraph 24

“SNAPBACK” MECHANISM

  • JCPOA/UNSCR 2231: Annex V, section E: UNSCR Termination Day, paragraphs 23-24

MASS DEPLOYMENT OF CENTRIFUGES, INCLUDING ADVANCED CENTRIFUGES

  • JCPOA: Annex I, paragraphs 32-39

ADVANCED CENTRIFUGE DEPLOYMENTS

  • Institute for Science and International Security analysis of Iran’s long-term enrichment plan

ENRICHMENT PURITY LEVEL

  • JCPOA: “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” paragraph 7

ENRICHED URANIUM STOCKPILE

  • JCPOA: “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” paragraph 7

FORDOW FUEL ENRICHMENT PLANT

  • JCPOA: “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” paragraph 5, and JCPOA, “Annex I,” paragraphs 45-46

NEW ENRICHMENT PLANTS

  • JCPOA: “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” paragraph 72

PLUTONIUM REPROCESSING

  • JCPOA: “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” paragraph 12

HEAVY WATER REACTORS

  • JCPOA: “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” paragraph 10

HEAVY WATER PRODUCTION/DOMESTIC STOCKPILING

  • JCPOA: Annex I, “Nuclear-related measures,” paragraph 14









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